Fest – Theater – Musik
Frühneuzeit-Info 27 (2016)
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 2016
Bestellungen werden gerne entgegengenommen: Bestellschein
Die diesjährige Ausgabe der Frühneuzeit-Info ist dem Thema Fest – Theater – Musik gewidmet und wird in wenigen Tagen erscheinen. In den nächsten Wochen wollen wir an dieser Stelle den interessierten Leserinnen und Lesern die Beiträge des aktuellen Heftes vorstellen. Den Anfang machen die Texte von Bärbel Rudin, Marko Deisinger und Martin Krummholz.
Read, bought up and sent to other places. Messages from the Dresden festival of the Electoral “Friends of Children” in 1655
(in German language)
In 1655, the Dresden Court of the Elector of Saxony, Johann Georg I., hosted a festival cycle on occasion of the gathering with the family branch of the eldest daughter, the Landgraviate House Hessen-Darmstadt – the festival spanning from the Elector’s birthday to the birthday of his son in law. Since the booklets accompanying the individual productions were quickly out of stock, a collective edition was published still in the same year, annotated by David Schirmer, the author of two ballet programmes. This publication has been buried in oblivion insofar as the culture-historical interest has focused strictly on the reprinted texts in Schirmer’s edition. The parts of the programme curated by Electoral Prince Johann Georg (II.) in the form of interculturally ambitious theatre performances with professional actors as well as the comprehensive concept of a dynastic self-celebration are investigated for the first time in this study.
Profane Amusement, the Jesuits and a Spectacular Accident in the Theatre Hall. Andrea D’Orso’s Commedia dell’arte Troupe at the Imperial Court of Vienna in 1660
(in German language)
In the carnival period of 1660, an Italian Commedia dell’arte troupe stayed at the Viennese Court at Emperor Leopold I’s invitation. Led by Andrea D’Orso, the comedians performed at the theatre at Rosstummelplatz – a venue built especially for the occasion. The performances caused a stir in Vienna. While the comedians supplied great entertainment among the members of the imperial family and their courtiers, the Jesuits opposed the profane topics of the humorous stage plays vehemently. In their opposition to the comedians, an accident in the auditorium came in handy to the Jesuits; they interpreted it as a divine sign. Influenced by the Jesuits and concerned about maintaining moral standards, Emperor Leopold issued the order to refrain from indecent action, gestures and remarks; otherwise, the comedians had to expect harsh punishment. Nevertheless, a sexually suggestive gesture occurred on stage, at which the Emperor was incensed. At last the Jesuits succeeded in achieving their goals to a large extent. Leopold revoked his invitation to the comedians: their performance was the last guest appearance of an Italian Commedia dell’arte company at the Viennese Court until the beginning of the 1690s.
Das Mäzenatentum des Grafen Johann Wenzel von Gallas und seine Festivitäten in Rom 1714–1719
(in German language)
Johann Wenzel Count of Gallas (1671–1719) belonged to the prominent Habsburg diplomats of the complicated period of the War of Spanish Succession (1700–1714). After six years (1705–1711) as envoy in London and the Netherlands the rich Bohemian nobleman occupied the prestigious but expensive post of an imperial ambassador in Rome since 1714. The Eternal City became a main stage of Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry carefully observed by all of Europe. Fine arts as well as music served to the purposes of the political propaganda; the fame of imposing spectacles was provided by the published illustrated descriptions. The envoy´s activity started with the official public entry and the following arrival audience. The spectacular festivities took place in the lavishly decorated palaces as well as in the neighboring open spaces. In fall 1714 the opulent Gala-Tage (the empress’ birthday and emperor’s name day celebrations, ‚imported‘ from Vienna) took place in front of Palazzo Odescalchi on the Piazza Santi Apostoli, in which the roman architect Giovanni Battista Contini (1642–1723) participated with his son Giulio and the Gallas´ composer Giovanni Bononcini (1670–1747). At the beginning of October 1717 Gallas organized in front of Palazzo Cesarini on the Via Papale the celebrations of the conquest of Beograd. All festivities were subordinated to the complicated rules of the roman ceremonial and followed the established course: The official announcement, congratulations, festive mass in the national church (Santa Maria Dell´Anima), banquet with the musical accompaniment, evening illuminations, eventually ephemer architecture and firework. Relating Gallas´ festivities there are period descriptions as well as (partially unpublished) iconographical materials preserved. The imperial ambassador participated on the profane and religious celebrations of the Eternal City, including academies and disputations; there are many book and musical titles dedicated to him. Being a quite extraordinary lover of Italian opera Gallas rented four loges and some private rooms in the Teatro Capranica; to his permanent staff belonged – besides composer – 13 musicians and three singers.